Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879-18 April 1955) was a theoretical physicist who was widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. He proposed the theory of relativity and also contributed much to the development of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and his "devotion to Theoretical Physics".

After the general theory of relativity was formulated, Einstein became famous throughout the world, an unusual achievement for a scientist. In his old age, his fame surpassed the fame of all scientists in history, and in popular culture, Einstein said to be considered synonymous with intelligence or even genius. His face is one of the best known around the world.

In 1999, Einstein was named the "People of the Century" by Time magazine. Its popularity also makes the name "Einstein" widely used in advertising and other merchandise, and finally "Albert Einstein" is registered as a trademark. To appreciate it, a unit in photochemistry is named einstein, a chemical element called einsteinium, and an asteroid named 2001 Einstein.


Youth and University
Einstein was born in Ulm in Württemberg, Germany; about 100 km east of Stuttgart. His father was Hermann Einstein, a featherweight seller who later underwent electrochemical work, and his mother was Pauline. They got married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. Their family is Jewish; Albert was sent to a Catholic school and at the wish of his mother he was given violin lessons.

At the age of five, his father shows the compass sac, and Einstein realizes that something in this "empty" space acts on the needle on the compass; he then describes this experience as one of the most moving moments of his life. Although he makes models and mechanical devices as a hobby, he is considered a slow learner, possibly caused by dyslexia, shyness, or because of the rare and unusual structures of his brain (examined after his death). He was then awarded for his theory of relativity because of his slowness, and said with deep thinking about the space and time of other children, he was able to develop a more developed intelligence. Another opinion, developing lately, of his mental development is that he suffers from Asperger's Syndrome, a condition associated with autism.

Einstein began studying mathematics at the age of twelve. There is a rumor that he failed in mathematics in his education, but this is not true; replacement in the assessment confused the following year. His two uncles helped to develop his interest in the intellectual world in his late childhood and early adolescence by proposing and books on science and mathematics.

In 1894, due to the failure of his father's electrochemical business, Einstein moved from Munich to Pavia, Italy (near Milan). Albert stayed behind to finish school, completing a semester before rejoining his family at Pavia.

His failure in the liberal arts in the entrance test of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich) the following year was a step backward by his family sent to Aarau, Switzerland, to complete his high school, where he received a diploma in 1896, Einstein several times enrolled in Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In the following year he relinquished the citizenship of Württemberg, and became stateless.

In 1898, Einstein met and fell in love with Mileva Marić, a Serb who was his classmate (also a friend of Nikola Tesla). In 1900, he was granted a degree to teach by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule and was accepted as a Swiss citizen in 1901. During this time Einstein discussed his interest in science to his close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva had a daughter named Lieserl, born in January 1902. Lieserl Einstein, at that time, was considered illegal because her parents were not married.

Work and Doctorate Degree
At the time of his graduation Einstein could not find a teaching job, his poignancy as a young man easily angered his professor. The father of a classmate helped him get a job as a technical assistant examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in 1902. There, Einstein assessed the inventor's patent application for a device that required physical knowledge. He also learns to realize the importance of the application compared to the bad explanation, and learns from the director how to "explain himself correctly". He sometimes corrects their designs and also evaluates the practicality of their work.

Einstein married Mileva on January 6, 1903. Einstein's marriage to Mileva, a mathematician. On May 14, 1904, the first child of this couple, Hans Albert Einstein, was born. In 1904, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent. He earned his doctorate after submitting the thesis "Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen" ("On a new determination of molecular dimensions") in 1905 from the University of Zürich.

In the same year he wrote four articles that provided the foundation of modern physics, without much of the science literature he could designate or many colleagues in the sciences he could discuss about his theory. Many physicists agree that the three theses (about the Brownian motion), the photoelectric effect, and special relativity) deserve the Nobel Prize. But only the thesis about the photoelectric effect that earned the award. This is an irony, not just because Einstein knows more about relativity, but also because the photoelectric effect is a quantum phenomenon, and Einstein becomes freed from the path in quantum theory. What makes his thesis extraordinary is that, in each case, Einstein confidently takes the idea from physics theory to logical consequence and succeeds in explaining the experimental results that have baffled scientists for decades.

He submitted his theses to "Annalen der Physik". They are usually addressed to "Annus Mirabilis Papers" (from Latin: extraordinary year). The Union of Pure Physics and Applications (IUPAP) is planning to celebrate 100 years of Einstein's publication work in 1905 as the 2005 Physics Year.

Brown's Movement
In his first article in 1905 called "On the Motion-Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat-of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", includes research on Brownian motion. Using the contemporary kinetic theory of fluid, he determined that the phenomenon, still lacking satisfactory explanation after decades after it was first observed, provided empirical evidence (on observation and experimentation) of the reality of the atom. And it also lends belief in the mechanics of statistics, which at the time was also controversial.

Before this thesis, the atom was known as a useful concept, but physicists and chemists argued fiercely whether the atom was really a real thing. Einstein's statistical discussion of the behavior of atoms gives experimental actors a way to count the atoms only by looking through a regular microscope. Wilhelm Ostwald, an anti-atomic school leader, then told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had converted to Einstein's complete account of Brown's movement.

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