Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno is the first President of the Republic of Indonesia. He had a very big role in the process of Indonesian independence that occurred on August 17, 1945, by going through the struggle to finally be able to liberate the Indonesian nation from Dutch colonialism. He is also known as the father of the Proclaimers of Indonesian Independence.

Soekarno was born in Blitar, East Java, Indonesia on June 6, 1901. He is the son of the couple Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo (father) and Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai (mother). His mother is a descendant of nobility from Bali and Hindu, while his own father is Muslim.

Soekarno had Kusno's real name at birth, but due to his frequent illness, when he was five years old his name was changed to Sukarno by his parents. He is the second of two children. his first brother named Sukarmini.

Soekarno first went to school in Tulung Agung until finally moved to Mojokerto, because following his parents who at that time was assigned in the city. In Mojokerto, Soekarno attended Erste Inlandse School. But in June 1911 Sukarno was transferred to the Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) to facilitate his acceptance at the Hoogere Burger School (HBS).

In 1915, Seokarno had graduated from ELS and successfully continued his education to HBS in Surabaya, East Java. He was received at HBS because of the help of a friend of his father named H.O.S Tjokroaminoto. While in Surabaya, he lives in the residence of the residence of Tjokroaminoto who has given him a place to live.

In Surabaya, Soekarno met with the leaders of the Sarekat Islam, an organization led by Tjokroaminoto at the time, such as Alimin, Musso, Dharsono, Hj.Agus Salim, and Abdul Muis.

Soekarno was active in the activities of youth organization Tri Koro Dharmo a youth organization founded by Satiman Wirjosandjojo at STOVIA Building on 7 March 1915. At the time of its establishment, the chairman was Dr. Satiman Wirjosandjojo, with the deputy chairman of Wongsonegoro, secretary of Sutomo and its members Muslich, Mosodo and Abdul Rahman.

After graduating from HBS Soerabaja in July 1921, Soekarno went to Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (now ITB) in Bandung with majoring in civil engineering in 1921. He passed the test of engineer on May 25, 1926 and on the 6th Dies Natalis TH Bandung July 3, 1926 he graduated with eighteen other engineers.

While in Bandung, Sukarno lived at the residence of Haji Sanusi who was a member of the Sarekat Islam. There he interacted with Ki Hajar Dewantara, Tjipto Mangunkusumo, and Dr. Douwes Dekker, who was then the leader of the National Indische Partij organization.

In 1926, Soekarno founded Algemene Studie Club in Bandung which was the result of inspiration from Indonesische Studie Club by Dr. Soetomo. On July 4, 1927, he established the PNI (Partai Nasional Indonesia), with the goal of Indonesia Merdeka. His activities in the PNI caused him to be captured by the Dutch on 29 December 1929 in Yogyakarta and transferred to Bandung the next day, to be thrown into Banceuy Prison. In 1930 he was transferred to Sukamiskin and in that year he raised his phenomenal Indonesian pledoi (pledoi) pledoinya, until it was released back on 31 December 1931.

In July 1932, Soekarno joined the Indonesian Party (Partindo), which was a fraction of the PNI. Sukarno was again arrested in August 1933, and exiled to the island of Flores. From 1938 to 1942 he was exiled to Bengkulu Province. He only returned freely during the Japanese occupation in 1942.

Japanese Occupation
During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the Japanese government used Indonesian figures such as Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, and others in every organization and institutions they created to appeal to Indonesians.

Some Japanese-formed organizations include: Java Hokokai, People Power Center (Putera), BPUPKI and PPKI, important figures such as Soekarno, Moh. Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, K.H. Mas Mansyur, and others active in the organization. And the national figures cooperate with the Japanese occupation government to achieve Indonesian independence. But not all national figures agree to cooperate with Japan, there are even underground movements and other rebellious movements because it considers Japan is a dangerous fascist.

Soekarno was active in the preparation of Indonesian independence, among them the formulation of Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and the basic of Indonesian government including formulating the text of the proclamation of Independence.

Soekarno along with national figures began to prepare themselves ahead of the Proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After the trial of the Indonesian BPUPKI Preparation Agency for Investigation, the Small Committee consisting of eight (official), small committees consisting of nine people / committee of Sembilan (producing the Jakarta Charter) and the Indonesian PPKI Preparatory Committee, Soekarno-Hatta established the State of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.

Rengasdengklok Event
There was a difference between the old and the young at that time. The difference is about independence, the two groups both want independence, but the old want to proclamate through PPKI, while the young do not want proclamation through PPKI because the organization is a Japanese formation. In addition, it is done so that Soekarno and Moh. Hatta is not affected by Japan. The youth are concerned that the real independence is the result of the struggle of the Indonesian nation, as if it were a gift from Japan.

Finally on July 16, 1945, the kidnapping of several youths such as Soekarni, Wikana and Chaerul Saleh from the "Menteng 31" association of Sukarno and Hatta brought to Rengasdengklok, to be urged to immediately accelerate the proclamation of Indonesian independence due to Japan's defeat to then with American troops. But Soekarno, Hatta and the figures refused on the grounds of waiting for clarity regarding the surrender of Japan. Another reason that develops is Sukarno set the right moment for the independence of the Republic of Indonesia which was chosen on 17 August 1945.

On August 17, 1945, Sukarno and Moh. Hatta proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, one of which was disseminated through Radio media for the people throughout Indonesia.

Became the President of the Republic of Indonesia and End of Office
On August 18, 1945, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta were appointed by the PPKI to become the first President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On 29 August 1945 the appointment to become president and vice president was confirmed by KNIP. He served as President of the Republic of Indonesia during the period 1945-1966.

At the time of the presidency, the spelling of Soekarno's name was changed by him himself to Sukarno because he thought the name used spelling colonists. He still uses the name Soekarno in his signature because the signature is a signature listed in the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence Text which should not be changed.

In 1960 there was a great political upheaval in Indonesia, the main cause was the great rebellion by the PKI (Partai Komunis Indonesia) known as G30-S / PKI which from this event then made the government of President Soekarno and also the old order ended marked by the existence "Supersemar" or the Letter of Command of Eleven March in 1966 signed by Soekarno. The letter contains an order to Lt. Gen. Soeharto to take necessary measures to safeguard the government's security and personal safety of the president. The letter was then used by Suharto who had been appointed Commander of the Army to dissolve the PKI and declare it a forbidden organization.

MPRS also issued two Provisions, namely TAP No. IX / 1966 regarding the inauguration of Supersemar into TAP MPRS and TAP no. XV / 1966 which guarantees Suharto as the holder of Supersemar to become president whenever the president is absent.

On February 20, 1967 Soekarno signed the Letter of Declaration of the Submission of Power at the Merdeka Palace. With the signing of the letter Soeharto became head of Indonesian government. After conducting the Special Session, MPRS also revoked the power of President Soekarno, revoked the title of the Great Leader of the Revolution and appointed Soeharto as President of the Republic of Indonesia until the next general election.

Wife of Soekarno
We read several references there are 2 different opinions about the wife of Sukarno, there are mentioning having 3 wives and there are mentioning he has 9 wives. We prefer 9 wives, as we read from wikipedia sites that we deem to be trustworthy of the truth. If there is any error we apologize profusely to you.

  1. Oetari (1921-1923) 
  2. Inggit Garnasih (1923-1943) 
  3. Fatmawati (1943-1956) 
  4. Hartini (1952-1970) 
  5. Kartini Manoppo (1959-1968) 
  6. Ratna Sari Dewi (1962-1970) 
  7. Haryati (1963-1966) 
  8. Yurike Sanger (1964-1968) 
  9. Heldy Djafar (1966-1969)

End of Soekarno
Soekarno has been declared kidney disorder and had undergone treatment in Vienna, Austria in 1961 and 1964. Dr. K. Fellinger from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Vienna suggested that Sukarno's left kidneys be removed but he refused and preferred traditional medicine.

Soekarno survived for 5 years before he died on Sunday, June 21, 1970 at Army Hospital Army Hospital Gatot Subroto, Jakarta with a status as a political prisoner. Soekarno's body was moved from RSPAD to Wisma Yasso owned by Ratna Sari Dewi. Before being declared dead, routine inspection of Soekarno was done by Doctor Mahar Mardjono who is a member of the team of presidential doctors.

Soekarno mendapatkan gelar Doktor Honoris Causa dari 26 universitas di dalam dan luar negeri. Perguruan tinggi dalam negeri yang memberikan gelar kehormatan kepada Soekarno antara lain Universitas Gajah Mada (19 September 1951), Institut Teknologi Bandung (13 September 1962), Universitas Indonesia (2 Februari 1963), Universitas Hasanuddin (25 April 1963), Institut Agama Islam Negeri Jakarta (2 Desember 1963), Universitas Padjadjaran (23 Desember 1964), dan Universitas Muhammadiyah (1 Agustus 1965).

Mendapatkan penghargaan bintang kelas satu The Order of the Supreme Companions of OR Tambo dari Presiden Afrika Selatan Thabo Mbeki. Soekarno mendapatkan penghargaan tersebut karena telah mengembangkan solidaritas internasional demi melawan penindasan oleh negara maju serta telah menjadi inspirasi bagi rakyat Afrika Selatan dalam melawan penjajahan dan membebaskan diri dari apartheid.

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